Identity and Image: Intermediate Measures

© Crown copyright (2016) Visit Wales

What are the Intermediate Measures?

  • Pride - non event attendees
  • Enhanced image/reputation - non event attendees

Pride - Non Event Attendees

For larger events, it may be appropriate to broaden the scope of the evaluation to include non-attendees residing in the host area/UK and focus on different time periods before, during and after an event.  Data collection with non-attendees could be facilitated using questions on citizens' panels, social media platforms or omnibus surveys.  An omnibus survey includes a stratified sample of the population and questions on the same survey can be bought by organisations and the costs shared.  Research agencies such as YouGov, Ipsos MORI and GfK run regular UK surveys for clients to get answers to their questions, at the right price, when they most need them.

Multiple waves of an omnibus survey of adults and young people were utilised between 2012 and 2015 as part of an evaluation of the 2014 Commonwealth Games held in Glasgow to assess changes over time in the pride expressed by Scottish residents.  Some pride-related prompts and statistics from the Commonwealth Games evaluation are presented in the table below. 1

Pride among Scottish residents regarding the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games








I will be/am/was proud that Glasgow/Scotland is hosting/hosted this event





People who live in Scotland will feel/felt proud





Young People

I was proud that Glasgow/Scotland was hosting the event





Source: TNS Opinion Survey, Ipsos MORI Young People in Scotland Survey 2014

At an even more advanced level, a monetary equivalent estimate of the intrinsic benefit that local residents perceive they receive as a result of hosting an event - otherwise known as 'psychic income' - can be derived using economic techniques such as contingent valuation'.  For example, one study explored the willingness of citizens in three UK cities to host the 2012 Olympic Games and found the average willingness to pay (WTP) was highest among Londoners at £22, about twice as much as in Manchester and Glasgow, and was around £2 billion for the UK population as a whole.3




Enhanced Image/Reputation - Non Event Attendees

Should event stakeholders be interested in examining whether an event has an impact on the image or reputation of the host area on individuals beyond those who attend, then other methods can be employed.  For example, for an event held in London, data collection with non-attendees from other parts of the UK could be facilitated using questions on omnibus surveys.  This type of research can be cost prohibitive and is best reserved for larger events.  Tools such as the Nation Brands Index, City Brand Index and Ultimate Sports Cities Index are also useful for larger events to look up how the international reputation of a nation or a city has changed over time e.g. before and after hosting an event.